Eugenics is the use of selective breeding techniques on humans which previously had only been used for the creation of new varieties of crops and domestic animals. Selective breeding for eugenics is applied to humans with the aim of "improving" the human species genome in other words our genetics. Recently this definition has to be expanded to include genetic engineering as well as selective breeding. Just like genetic engineering can be used to improve varieties of domestic plants and animals so can it be used to "improve" humans, as is demonstrated in the book "Twenty First Century Overman."
Eugenics was widely popular in the early decades of the 20th century but has largely fallen into disrepute after having become associated with Nazi Germany. Since the postwar period both the public and the scientific communities have associated eugenics with Nazi abuses such as enforced racial hygiene human experimentation and the extermination of "undesired" population groups. However, developments in genetic engineering technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised much new interest about the meaning of eugenics and its ethical and moral status in the modern era. If you are interested in this subject then I strongly recommend that you read "Twenty First Century Overman" which will explain clearly and concisely what is eugenics; including the eugenics of the past and the eugenics of the future. Click here to learn more about this interesting subject we highly recommend that you read "Twenty First Century Overman."
Below is an extract from the book Twenty First Century Overman by Douglas G Link
"The progress of man in terms of both his mental and physical faculties seems less than impressive; certainly when compared to his technological evolution.”
Modern 21st century eugenics when combined with genetic engineering has the potential to bring about the creation of a new variety of human; superior and dominant to present day “man” in every way. This “Genetic Superman” will be not unlike the “Overman” which the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche described in his 1883 book “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”.
So let us begin our journey into the brave new world of the Overman with the words of the great Friedrich Nietzsche himself “Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? What is ape to man? A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. And man shall be that to overman: a laughingstock or painful embarrassment. Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end."
Eugenics was never a flawed science as the politically correct academics would have you believe; indeed to say eugenics was ever proved a failure is deceit, for its failure was due to both the misapplication of eugenics and that the science of genetics was not at the level of maturity for its full potential to be actualized. However, with the massive biotechnological advances of the late 20th and early 21st century the applied science has indeed caught up with the theory; enabling “the self directed evolution of our species to reach its full ‘God like’ potential”.
It is indeed time to move on from the dark past of eugenics to a bright new future, as discounting the potential of eugenics in light of our new bio technological advances for the sole reason that it was misused by past totalitarian regimes and against some religious teachings written by people thousands of years previous is just folly.
Is it not true that chemistry and physics have also been used for reasons of “evil”, so why do we not discard all of physics and chemistry? It sometimes seems that “man” has a self hatred for his own evolutionary potential with some members of the species even deliberately sabotaging human evolutionary growth because of religious dogma or the own politically and selfish agenda. The elite do not wish you the common man to have access to improving your own genetics so malign the very idea of eugenics while they themselves cynically use it to genetically enhance themselves and their own bloodlines."
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"Those least fit to carry on the race are increasing most rapidly ... Funds that should be used to raise the standard of our civilization are diverted to maintenance of those who should never have been born." Margaret Sanger.
It has often been claimed, especially by the pro life movement, that abortion is a modern day form of eugenics, so let’s examine whether or not this is true. Well the answer is not a straight black and white one, as in some cases abortion is a modern day form of eugenics; especially when used to abort fetuses that have medical defects, but in many cases it is not; such as when abortion is carried out for reasons of convenience, economics, rape, population control and so forth.
What is abortion eugenics?
Eugenics is about improving the biology of the human race by preventing unhealthy and incompetent individuals from being born or by altering them through genetic engineering, but abortion eugenics is not in any way related to aborting otherwise healthy fetuses for any reason other than genetic improvement.
However medical abortions can sometimes be classed as Eugenic abortions.
The mother of a fetus aborted for medical reasons is usually unaware of the eugenic nature of the termination, as for them the termination is primarily carried out for such reasons as mercy, compassion or even convenience; however, as the termination prevents the propagation deleterious genes making their way into future generations it qualifies as a eugenics abortion; regardless of the mother’s objectives.
Ignorance in the definition of a eugenics abortion.
It is often claimed by the pro life movement that because some pro choice individuals believe unwanted children are more apt to become criminals then aborting those unwanted fetuses for the reduction of crime is a form “eugenics abortion”. However this just demonstrates the ignorance of some people on both sides of the abortion debate to the actual meaning of eugenics, as any increase in the crime rate due to children being unwanted could be just as likely to be of a social cause than a genetic one.
Additionally it is often claimed by the pro life movement that abortion is often used as a form of population control now this may or may not be true but population control has nothing whatsoever to do with eugenics and is an entirely different issue (on a personal note I would agree that something drastic has to be done about human population increase).
However, because abortion tends to be higher among those classes of society that have a lower educational and economic base this makes it possible that some form of indirect eugenics for crime reduction is taking place, but this is only true if it can be proved that there is a higher genetic propensity for those of the lower social and economic classes to commit crime than the higher classes.
John J. Donohue III (professor of law at Stanford University) and Steven D. Levitt (professor of law at University of Chicago) says “Legalized abortion contributed significantly to recent crime reductions." Their study was published in the second quarter, 2001 Harvard's Quarterly Journal of Economics. According to the authors, "Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization” and that" legalized abortion appears to account for as much as 50 percent of the recent drop in crime"
However, even if it were true that high abortion rates do result in a drop in crime that would still not prove that there was a greater genetic potential of those fetuses aborted to have committed more crimes than the average citizen if they had been born.
Donohue and Levitt go on to say that "Given that homicide rates of black youths are roughly nine times higher than those of white youths, racial differences in the fertility effects of abortion are likely to translate into greater homicide reductions." In other words they are insinuating that by reducing the number of black babies born in the United States abortion has lowered the crime rate. Now this may or not be true, but again I stress this has nothing to do with eugenics, as it has not been proven that “blacks” have any more genetic potential to commit crimes than “whites”. (if that can be proved and the definition of what constitutes black then yes aborting more fetuses of any "race" more likely to commit crime would result in a reduction of the homicide rate.
I stress that I am referring to a genetic propensity to commit crime and not saying that “black” people relative to their overall make up of the population of the United States or the UK do or do not commit more crimes of a certain nature than “white” people; rather there is just no evidence to indicate that there is a genetic difference between each race in regard to the genetic potential for criminality. Therefore idea that abortion for crime reduction is a form of eugenics is not plausible at present.
Interestingly James R. (Ron) Weddington, one of the co-counsels for Roe v. Wade, the famous Supreme Court decision that legalized abortion as a "right" in the United States wrote to president elect Bill Clinton in 1992, advocating elimination of the lower class through birth control and abortion:"There have been about 30 million abortions in this country since Roe v. Wade. Think of all the poverty, crime and misery ...and then add 30 million unwanted babies to the scenario...We don't need more cannon fodder. We don't need more parishioners; we don't need more cheap labor. We don't need more poor babies" However, Weddington’s comment is not support for eugenics as he does not in any way mention that poverty or crime is due to genetic causes just that unwanted babies add an extra burden to society that we could well do without.
Abortion for reasons of eugenics becomes more clearly cut when performed for medical reasons. In fact I would say that abortion for reasons of terminating genetically defective fetuses is certainly a form of eugenics.
With the completion of the Human Genome Project the amount of abortions for medical reasons will no doubt rapidly increase and at time of writing the amount of possible genetic defects in a fetus that can be detected is large and rapidly becoming larger.
What is often underestimated is not just the suffering that a person born with serious health defects has to endure, but also the suffering of those family members or friends that have to care for them; which often involves sacrificing much of their lives in order to take care of a severely handicapped person when perhaps it would have been better for everyone including the afflicted if they had not been born at all. This may sound like a selfish and cruel viewpoint however it could be argued that not aborting a fetus with serious health defects is also a selfish act; especially when the person refusing the abortion is expecting others to sacrifice large parts of their lives to help care for their seriously handicapped child. Additionally large amounts of tax payer’s money and resources must be invested which perhaps could be better spent on other areas of medicine. According to Bob Edwards, the scientist who facilitated the birth of England's first test-tube baby “those who fail to terminate a Down syndrome child are sinners and "genetic outlaws”
Recent advances in biotechnology are certainly driving a re-evaluation to the potential of eugenics even amongst those once so opposed and usually those opposed were brain washed by the church or politically correct ideologies for selfish reasons by the elite propagators as they don’t want the rest of us to improve our genetics while they steam away with their own eugenics programs.
Eugenics was never a flawed science as the politically correct academics would have you believe; indeed to say eugenics was ever proved a failure is deceit, for its supposed failure was on a practical level and its actual theory and potential was never proved a failure. Its failure on a practical level was due to both the misapplication of eugenics and that the science of genetics was not at the level of maturity for its full potential to be actualized. However, with the massive biotechnological advances of the late 20th and early 21st century the applied science has indeed caught up with the theory; enabling “the self directed evolution of our species to reach its full ‘God like’ potential”.
It is indeed time to move on from the dark past of eugenics to a bright new future, as discounting the potential of eugenics in light of our new bio technological advances for the sole reason that it was misused by past totalitarian regimes, against some religious teachings written by people thousands of years previous or that the elite of society want to keep it for themselves is a great injustice to the rest of us..
Is it not true that chemistry and physics have also been used for reasons of “evil”, so why do we not discard all of physics and chemistry? It sometimes seems that “man” has a self hatred for his own evolutionary potential with some members of the species even deliberately sabotaging human evolutionary growth because of religious dogma.
I raise a glass and toast the Overman.
The rapid advancements in biological sciences means that the creation of Nietzsche’s overman is now firmly within our grasp. Determining our own evolutionary destiny would make humans the only animals that have consciously turned Darwin’s theory of natural selection on its head brining in a new age of Lamarckism.
I would like to raise a glass to a glorious future; a future where men become more than men; a time when men self transform through the power of science into the “Overmen”.
I started this book with a quote from one of the greatest thinkers of the 19th century and I leave it with a quote from one of the greatest thinkers of the 21st century Professor Richard Dawkins “We, alone on Earth, can rebel against the tyranny of the selfish replicators (genes or memes). We have the power to defy the selfish genes of our birth, and, if necessary, the selfish memes of our indoctrination”.
I conclude that we will soon indeed have the power to become the Overmen!
Adolf Hitler read racial hygiene tracts during his imprisonment in Landsberg Prison. He thought that Germany could only become strong again if the state applied to German society the principles of racial hygiene and eugenics.
Hitler believed the nation had become weak, corrupted by the infusion of degenerate elements into its bloodstream. These had to be removed quickly. He also believed that the strong and the racially pure had to be encouraged to have more children, and the weak and the racially impure had to be neutralized by one means or another.
The racialism and idea of competition, termed social Darwinism or neo-Darwinism in 1944, were discussed by European scientists and also in the Vienna press during the 1920s. Where Hitler picked up the ideas is uncertain. The theory of evolution had been generally accepted in Germany at the time but this sort of extremism was rare. In 1876, Ernst Haeckel had discussed the selective infanticide policy of the Greek city of ancient Sparta.
In his Second Book, which was unpublished during the Nazi era, Hitler praised Sparta, adding that he considered Sparta to be the first "Völkisch State". He endorsed what he perceived to be an early eugenics treatment of deformed children:
The Nazis based their eugenics program on the United States' programs of forced sterilization.
The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, proclaimed on July 14, 1933, required physicians to register every case of hereditary illness known to them, except in women over forty-five years of age. Physicians could be fined for failing to comply.
In 1934 the first year of the Law's operation, nearly 4,000 people appealed against the decisions of sterilization authorities. 3,559 of the appeals failed. By the end of the Nazi regime, over 200 Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichten) were created, and under their rulings over 400,000 people were sterilized against their will.
Nazi eugenics institutions
The Hadamar Clinic was a mental hospital in the German town of Hadamar, which was used by the Nazi-controlled German government as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Program. The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927.
In its early years, and during the Nazi era, it was strongly associated with theories of eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz and Eugen Fischer, and by its director Otmar von Verschuer. Under Fischer, the sterilization of so-called Rhineland Bastards was undertaken. Grafeneck Castle was one of Nazi Germany's killing centers during the Euthanasia, today it is a memorial place dedicated to the victims of the Action T4.
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. Prisoners were coerced into participating: they did not willingly volunteer and there was never informed consent. Typically, the experiments resulted in death, disfigurement or permanent disability. At Auschwitz and other camps, under the direction of Dr. Eduard Wirths, selected inmates were subjected to various experiments which were supposedly designed to help German military personnel in combat situations, develop new weapons, aid in the recovery of military personnel that had been injured, and to advance the racial ideology backed by the Third Reich. Dr. Aribert Heim conducted similar medical experiments at Mauthausen. Carl Vaernet is known to have conducted experiments on homosexual prisoners in attempts to "cure" homosexuality. After the war, these crimes were tried at what became known as the Doctors' Trial, and revulsion at the abuses perpetrated led to the development of the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics.
According to the indictment at the Subsequent Nuremberg
Experiments on twins
Experiments on twin children in concentration camps were created to show the similarities and differences in the genetics of twins, as well as to see if the human body can be unnaturally manipulated. The central leader of the experiments was Josef Mengele, who from 1943-1944 performed experiments on nearly 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. Only 200 individuals survived these studies. While attending University of Munich (located in the city that remained one of Adolf Hitler's focal points during the revolution) studying philosophy and medicine with an emphasis on anthropology and paleontology, Mengele stated: "this simple political concept (fascism) finally became the decisive factor in my life". Mengele's new found admiration for the "simple political concept" led him to mix his studies of medicine and politics as his career choice. Mengele received his PhD for a thesis entitled "Racial Morphological Research on the Lower Jaw Section of Four Racial Groups", which suggested that a person's race could be identified by the shape of the jaw. The Nazi organization saw his studies as talents, and Mengele was transferred to the German Auschwitz concentration camp located in Poland on May 30, 1943. Contrary to common belief, Mengele was not the only doctor at Auschwitz nor was he even the highest-ranking physician: SS captain Dr. Eduard Wirths was the physician in charge at
From about March 1941 to about January 1945, sterilization experiments were conducted at Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, and other places by Dr. Carl Clauberg. The purpose of these experiments was to develop a method of sterilization which would be suitable for sterilizing millions of people with a minimum of time and effort. These experiments were conducted by means of X-ray, surgery and various drugs. Thousands of victims were sterilized. Aside from its experimentation, the Nazi government sterilized around 400,000 individuals as part of its compulsory sterilization program. Intravenous injections of solutions speculated to contain iodine and silver nitrate were successful, but had unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer. Therefore, radiation treatment became the favored choice of sterilization. Specific amounts of exposure to radiation destroyed a person’s ability to produce ova or sperm. The radiation was administered through deception. Prisoners were brought into a room and asked to complete forms, which took two to three minutes. In this time, the radiation treatment was administered and, unknown to the prisoners, they were rendered completely sterile. Many suffered severe radiation burns.